The Texas legislature created Sherman County in 1876, naming it for Texas Revolutionary soldier Sidney Sherman. The county was attached to Olham county for judicial purposes until 1889, when there was sufficient population to organize. The first county seat was at Coldwater, a community founded near the geographic center of the county by the Loomis family. In 1890, a one-story stone courthouse was built. Coldwater soon boasted a post office, the county jail, a hotel, mercantile store and newspaper.Recorded Texas Historical Landmark
In 1901, Stratford, located in the northwest part of the county on the newly constructed Rock Island Railroad, won a controversial election to move the county seat from Coldwater. Officials moved the county records during the night and held a special session of commissioners court to secure the rights to the county seat. After the controversy faded, a two-story frame courthouse with cupola was built at this site.
Fire destroyed the frame courthouse in April 1922. In June, Sherman County citizens voted on two important issues. First, an election was held on whether to move the county seat from Stratford to Texhoma, also on the Rock Island along the Oklahoma border. Stratford prevailed by a vote of 370 to 209. A week later, $62,500 in bonds for a new courthouse was approved by a vote of 322 to 81. The commissioners court chose the Amarillo firm of Parker & Rittenberry as architects and J.W. Mordecai as contractor. Commissioners court met in the Christian Church until construction was completed in summer 1923. The two-story concrete courthouse with raised basement displays classical revival styling in its symmetrical facades and ionic columns. The exterior is running bond brick with cast stone detailing.