The Aroostook War was an undeclared, bloodless "war" that occurred in 1839.
The peace treaty that ended the American Revolution in 1783 had not satisfactorily determined the boundary between New Brunswick and what is now Maine.
The boundary dispute worsened after Maine gained statehood (1820) and, disregarding British claims, began granting land to settlers in the valley of the Aroostook River.
The king of the Netherlands was asked to arbitrate the dispute, but the U.S. Senate rejected his award in 1832, although the British accepted it.
Canadian lumberjacks entered the Aroostook region to cut timber during the winter of 1838-1839, and in February they seized the American land agent who had been dispatched to expel them.
The "war" was now under way.
Maine and New Brunswick called out their militiamen, and the U.S. Congress, at the instigation of Maine, authorized a force of 50,000 men and appropriated $10 million to meet the emergency.
Maine actually sent 10,000 troops to the disputed area.
U.S. President Martin Van Buren dispatched General Winfield Scott to the "war" zone, and Scott arranged an agreement (March 1839) between officials of Maine and New Brunswick that averted actual fighting.
Britain agreed to refer the dispute to a boundary commission, and in 1842 the Webster-Asburton
Treaty settled the matter.
The compromise reached by Daniel Webster and 1st Baron Ashburton (Alexander Baring) awarded 7,015 square miles to the United States and 5,012 to Great Britain.
Retention by the British of the northern area assured them of year-round overland military communications with Montreal.
Webster used a map, said to have been marked with a red line by Benjamin Franklin at Paris in 1782, in persuading Maine and Massachusetts to accept the agreement.
Britain agreed to pay these states $150,000 each, while the United States agreed to reimburse Britain for expenses incurred defending the area against encroachment.
The Aroostook War Fighting Song
Sung in Maine to the tune of "Auld Lang Syne"
We are marching on to Madawask,
To fight the trespassers;
We'll teach the British how to walk
And come off conquerors.
We'll have our land, right good and clear,
For all the English say;
They shall not cut another log,
Nor stay another day.
They need not think to have our land,
We Yankees can fight well;
We've whipped them twice most manfully,
As every child can tell.
And if the tyrants say one word,
A third time we will show,
How high the Yankee spirit runs,
And what our guns can do.
They better much all stay at home,
mind their business there;
The way we treated them before,
Made all the nations stare.
Come on! Brace fellows, one and all!
The Red-Coats ne'er shall say,
We Yankees, feared to meet them armed,
So gave our land away.
We'll feed them well with ball and shot.
We'll cut these red-coats down,
Before we yield to them an inch
Or title of our ground.
Ye husbands, fathers, brothers, sons,
From every quarter come!
March, to the bugle and the fife!
March, to the beating drum!
Onward! My lands so brave and true
Our country's right demands
With justice, and with glory fight,
For these Aroostook lands!
Bangor, Feb 21, 1839