Stonewall County was created in 1876 by the state legislature, but the area was only sparsely settled by cattle ranchers before the turn of the century. About 1900 a number of German families who had been living in southeast Texas relocated to this vicinity and settled along the Double Mountain Fork of the Brazos River. They bought land and started farming, often living in half-dugout structures until lumber could be brought in to build houses and barns.
In 1903 G.R. Spielhagen laid out a townsite (2 mi. SE) and named it Brandenburg after a town in Germany. When the railroad was built through the area in 1908-09, bypassing the small community, the town relocated to this site along the rail line and became known as New Brandenburg.
The community grew rapidly and soon boasted a post office, school, cotton gin, stores, and homes. At the outbreak of World War I, the citizens petitioned the U.S. Postal Service to change the name of the town to demonstrate their patriotism and pride in their adopted country. On August 9, 1918, the name officially changed to Old Glory. Although the town has declined, many descendants of pioneer settlers continue to reside in the area.