Seven miles northeast in the Elizabeth River is Craney Island, a landmark of two wars. During the War of 1812, the British attacked its fortifications on 22 June 1813, but were repulsed by its defenders including the Portsmouth artillery. During the Civil War, while abandoning Norfolk in April 1861, the Union forces scuttled the USS Merrimack. The Confederates refloated it and transformed it into their first ironclad, the CSS Virginia. Famous for its duel to a draw with the USS Monitor, the Virginia was scuttled at Craney Island on 11 May 1862, when the Confederates evacuated Norfolk.