By March 1822, Stephen F. Austin had attracted about 150 colonists to Texas. The pioneers faced many hardships, including concern for their protection form Indians along the Colorado and Brazos rivers. In December of that year, Trespalacios, the Mexican governor, divided the colony into two districts, each having an alcalde to preside over matters of local administration and captain to handle protection of the colonists.Texas Sesquicentennial 1836 - 1986
In 1823, after several Indian attacks on members of Austin's colony, Captain Robert Kuykendall and Alcalde John Tumlinson of the Colorado District requested permission from Tresplacios to raise a company to protect the colonists. Ten men were recruited to serve under the command of Moses Morrison.
When Stephen F. Austin returned from Mexico City in August 1823, he found the colony still plagued by Indian disturbances and announced that he would employ ten additional men, at his own expense, to serve as "Rangers" for the common defense.
Although the law enforcement group known as the Texas Rangers was not formally organized until 1835, the "Rangers" of Austin's Colony are the earliest recorded force of this type raised in Texas and served as a model for the later formation of the Texas Rangers.