Marion County was named for the Revolutionary War general, Francis Marion of South Carolina, the legendary "Swamp Fox." It was formed in 1842 from Harrison and Monongalia Counties. The first courthouse, a two-story red brick structure, was completed in 1844. The building had a cupola with a bell, and wood columns supported the gable roof. It housed various county offices, with a large courtroom and jury rooms on the second floor.
On March 12, 1897, the demolition of the first courthouse commenced, and the current building was completed by 1900. The architectural firm of Yost and Packard of Columbus, Ohio, designed this Beaux Arts style building. The building underwent renovations in 1960, 1977, 1987 and 2003.