There have been four court houses in Rockville since it was established as the County seat in 1776. Court was originally held at Hungerford Tavern. A frame court house existed in the late 18th century but was sufficiently outgrown by 1810 to necessitate a new building for the Clerk and his records.
In 1835, the County petitioned the General Assembly for authorization of a new brick court house, which was completed in 1840. By that time, Rockville was an established residential, governmental, and market hub with a population of nearly 400. The original single-story wings of the court house were raised in 1872 to provide more space. One year later, however, the Metropolitan Branch of the B&O Railroad opened. Population and court house business increased significantly, and the court house building was again outgrown. It was demolished in 1890.
The General Assembly authorized another bond issue for the replacement brick and sandstone Romanesque Revival court house which was constructed in 1890-91 and which stands here today.
Montgomery County's growth continued, and the grey Neoclassical style court house was constructed and connected to the 1891 court house in 1931.