Created 1876, from Bexar District. Named for Asa Mitchell, a soldier in Battle of Velasco, 1832, and member of consultation of 1835, and Eli, his brother, a soldier in battle at Gonzales, 1835. Organized 1881. Colorado City, County Seat, was 1880's cattle capital of Texas.
Rolling terrain broken by the Colorado River and its tributaries. Mineral deposits are brick and tile clays, potash, gypsum, salt and oil. Discovery well of the Permian Basin oil fields came in at Westbrook.
Small grains, cotton, hay and forage are principle crops. Livestock also raised.