Chief Wawatam

Chief Wawatam (HM201D)

Location: Mackinaw City, MI 49701 Cheboygan County
Country: United States of America

N 45° 46.876', W 84° 43.5'

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Mackinaw City Historical Pathway

Railroad construction across America boomed in the second half of the 1800s, spurred on by technological improvements and demand for distant products. Getting rail cars across the Straits required special boats.

Railroads were completed on both sides of the Straits of Mackinac in 1881. The railroad companies were picking up the products of the northern states such as western wheat and Michigan iron ore. A ferry boat system had to be implemented to cross the 5-mile wide Straits of Mackinac. Railroad cars were shuttled back and forth by boat while the heavy locomotives remained on land.

The Algomah was the first ship the railroad built. It operated until 1888 and was replaced by the St. Ignace. In 1893, the Sainte Marie began crossings as well. The Algomah, St. Ignace and Ste. Marie were all wooden-hulled icebreakers and proved unable to withstand the strain of heavy ice at the Straits.

In 1911 the steel-hulled Chief Wawatam started service. At the time, it was the most advanced icebreaker in the world. The "Chief" and the second Sainte Marie worked as sister ships until 1957 when the Mackinac Bridge opened.

The End of the railroad ferries

Ferry use dropped dramatically in 1957 with the opening of the Mackinac Bridge.
In 1984 the railroad dock in St. Ignace collapsed and the Chief Wawatam stopped running. In 1988 she was sold and converted to a barge that worked until the barge was scrapped in 2009.

Chief Wawatam's Design

For ice breaking, the Chief Wawatam had a bow propeller that sucked the water from under the ice to weaken it. Her hull was cut away at both the bow and stern so she could ride up on the ice and crush it with her weight, ideas later incorporated in the Icebreaker Mackinaw.

She also was designed for fast loading and unloadings with railroad tracks that aligned with the dock. She has a sea gate that lifted out of the way so she could be loaded from the bow.
Details
HM NumberHM201D
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Marker ConditionNo reports yet
Date Added Saturday, July 22nd, 2017 at 4:01pm PDT -07:00
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Locationbig map
UTM (WGS84 Datum)16T E 676850 N 5072262
Decimal Degrees45.78126667, -84.72500000
Degrees and Decimal MinutesN 45° 46.876', W 84° 43.5'
Degrees, Minutes and Seconds45° 46' 52.56" N, 84° 43' 30" W
Driving DirectionsGoogle Maps
Area Code(s)231, 906
Which side of the road?Marker is on the right when traveling East
Closest Postal AddressAt or near 131 N Huron Ave, Mackinaw City MI 49701, US
Alternative Maps Google Maps, MapQuest, Bing Maps, Yahoo Maps, MSR Maps, OpenCycleMap, MyTopo Maps, OpenStreetMap

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