Dr. Albert Carroll Traweek, Sr. (1875-1959) and his wife Allie (Rainey) (1881-1963) came to Matador from Fort Worth soon after their marriage in 1897. Dr. Traweek began his medical practice, and the couple bought a small frame house. They eventually were the parents of six children. A prominent and respected physician, Dr. Traweek first traveled on horseback or by horse and buggy to visit his patients. He was known as the "Pneumonia Doctor" because of his success in treating people with that illness. He established a hospital and was the county's first public health officer.
In 1915, after a previous dwelling on this site was destroyed by fire, construction began on this house. Designed by Dr. Traweek's uncle, noted West Texas builder Charles Stephens Oates, the house was completed in 1916 at a cost of $14,000. The two-story stuccoed masonry structure reflects a combination of architectural styles, exhibiting Italian renaissance, prairie and classical revival detailing.
Among those who visited the Traweek home were Baldwin Parker (son of Quanah Parker, last chief of the Comanche Indians) and many state and national officials. The home, which has remained in the Traweek family, received an official historical medallion in 1964 and is a Recorded Texas Historical Landmark.