Beginning in the 1830s, disagreement over doctrine caused a split in the Baptist faith. Some Baptists wished to retain the teachings of the "old school," favoring a more strict interpretation of the Bible. Disputes arose over the subjects of Sunday schools, theological seminaries, and the missionary movement which was becoming popular. They felt that missions took the preaching of the Gospel out of the hands of the Church. In September of 1850, fourteen members of the Little River Baptist Church left that congregation to form Mt. Zion Old School Baptist Church. The deed to the property was obtained in December of 1850, and the Federal-style. building was completed in 1851. The original section of the cemetery wall was built in 1853. Meetings were at Mt. Zion on the fourth Sunday of each month, and the preachers (who were called "elders") were shared by other Old School Baptist churches in the area. Men and women entered the church through separate front doors. Women sat on the right side and men on the left. At a time when racial segregation was the norm, slave and free black members of the congregation entered through separate side doors and worshipped in the balcony. Services continued at Mt. Zion until 1980. The church trustees transferred the building and property, excluding the cemetery; to the County of Loudoun
in 1999. The County began restoration of the church in 2007, assisted bv the Mt. Zion Church Preservation Association. In 2009. Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority acquired the site and currently offers programs, guided tours, and living history events.