The Shiloh Baptist Church (Old Site) resides on the site once occupied by the African Baptist Church. Constructed as the Fredericksburg Baptist Church, the building was sold to its African-American members in 1857, after the white congregation had moved to a larger sanctuary on Princess Anne Street.
The African Baptists initially had a white pastor because Virginia law prohibited blacks from meeting without a white person present. Following the Civil War, the congregation adopted the name Shiloh Baptist Church and George L. Dixon, a slave who had purchased his freedom in 1856, became the first black pastor.
In 1886, a portion of the structure collapsed, a result of periodic flooding. Church members disagreed on where to rebuild and eventually divided into two congregations. In 1890, Shiloh Baptist Church (Old Site) rose where the original church had stood. Shiloh Baptist Church (New Site) established itself on Princess Anne and Wolfe Streets.