Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia (HM1MVG)

Location: , İstanbul 34122 Fatih
Country: Turkey
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N 41° 0.527', E 28° 58.765'

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Ayasofya

English:
The present Ayasofya is the third building of the same name that was constructed in the same place.
The First Great Church serving as the cathedral was constructed by Emperor Constantius (337-361) in 360; it had a basilica plan and was covered with a wooden roof. During a riot that occurred during the reign of Emperor Arcadios (365-408) in 404, it was set on fire.
After reconstruction, it was rededicated by the Emperor Theodosios II (408-450) in 415, and had a similar basilica plan. It survived until the more serous Nike riot of 532, as the greatest church in the city. After the Nike revolt against the Emperor Justinian (527-565) it was set alight and shortly afterwards razed to the ground to make way for a new church.

The Emperor Justinian built the new Hagia Sophia, meaning "Holy Wisdom" in the same place, as the world's largest cathedral. The construction began in 532 and was completed in 537, a period of only live years. lt was dedicated with a big ceremony on December 27th 537 A.D. The church was planned by the architects lsidore of Miletus (today Balm) and Anthemios of Tralles (today Aydın): a central large dome supported by two halt-domes on the eastern and western sides, different from the formers basilica type.

With the Conquest of Istanbul by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed ll in 1453, Hagia Sophia, as the largest religious structure of the city, was converted into a mosque. Ayasofya has been repaired many site many times during the Ottoman period. lt was strengthened with additional structural support walls. These vital repairs and additions contributed both to making it survive until present and bringing an Turkish-lslamic character to the building.


In the 16th century. extensive repair works were made by the architect Sinan. During this period, exterior structural support walls and minarets were added. All these additions ensured that Ayasofya became the a large complex of Ottoman times. In the reign of the Sultan Abdülmecid (1839-1861 ), the Swiss Fossati Brothers made various kinds of repairs, between the years of 1847 and 1849.

Ayasofya, which reflects a combination of Christian and Islamic elements. was transformed into a museum, by a the decision of the cabinet and the order of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. It was opened to the public on February 1. 1935.


Turkish:

Günümüz Ayasofya'sı aynı yere yapılmış olan üçüncü yapıdır. İlk yapı İmparator Konstantlos (337-361) tarafından 360 yılında bazilikan planlı ve ahşap çatılı olarak inşa ettirilmiştir. Yapı İmparator Arkadios Dönemi'nde (365-408) 404'de isyancılar tarafından yakılmıştır. İkinci yapı ise İmparator ll. Theodosios (408-450) tarafından 415 yılında yine aynı planla inşa ettirilmiş, 415-532 yılları arasında şehrin en büyük kilisesi olmuştur. II. Theodosios Dönemi kilisesi 532 yılında, İmparator İustinianos'a (527-565) karşı çıkan Nika Ayaklanması'nda tekrar yanmış ve kalıntıları temizlenerek yeni yapıya yer açılmıştır.

İmparator İustinianos dünyanın en büyük kilisesi olarak, Kutsal Hikmet anlamına gelen Ayasofya'yi aynı yerde inşa ettirmiş, 532 yılında yapımına başlanan kilise gelen Ayasofya 'yı aynı yerde inşa ettirmiş, 532 yılında yapımına başlanan kilise sadece beş yılda tamamlanarak 27 Aralık 537'de büyük bir törenle ibadete açılmıştır. Mimarları, Anadolu'dan, Miletoslu (Balat) İsidoros ve Trallesli (Aydın) Anthemios'dur. ki yapıların bazilikal planından farklı olarak Bu mimarlar Ayasofya'nın planını önce yapıların bazilikal planından farklı olarak doğu ve batıda yarım kubbelerle desteklenen yarım merkezi kubbe planli olarak tasarlamışlardır.


Fatih Sultan Mehmed'in İstanbul'u 1453 yılında fethiyle şehrin en büyük dini yapısı olan Ayasofya, camiye çevrilmiştir. Bu tarihten sonra Ayasofya'da çeşitli tamirler yapılmış ve yapı destek duvarlarıyla güçlendirilmiş, çevresine eklenen yapılarla bir külliye haline getirilmiştir. Yapılan tamirler ve eklemeler Ayasofya'nın günümüze kadar ayakta kalmasını sağlamakla beraber, yapıya Türk-Islam niteliği de kazandırmıştır. Ayasofya'da en kapsamlı onarım çalışmaları 16. yüzyılda Mimar Sinan tarafından yapılmış, bu dönemde yapıya destek duvarları ve minareler eklenmiştir. Sultan Abdülmecid Dönemi'nde (1839-1861) ise İsviçreli Fossati kardeşler 1847-1849 yılları arasında çeşitli onarım çalışmaları yapmışlardır.

Hıristiyan ve İslam öğelerinin bir arada görüldüğü Ayasofya, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk'ün emri ve Bakanlar Kurulu kararıyla müzeye çevrilerek 1 Şubat 1935 tarihinde ziyarete açılmıştır.
Details
HM NumberHM1MVG
Tags
Placed ByKültür ve Turizm Bakanlıǧı
Marker ConditionNo reports yet
Date Added Friday, August 14th, 2015 at 9:01pm PDT -07:00
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Locationbig map
UTM (WGS84 Datum)35T E 666454 N 4541619
Decimal Degrees41.00878333, 28.97941667
Degrees and Decimal MinutesN 41° 0.527', E 28° 58.765'
Degrees, Minutes and Seconds41° 0' 31.62" N, 28° 58' 45.9" E
Driving DirectionsGoogle Maps
Which side of the road?Marker is on the right when traveling East
Closest Postal AddressAt or near 10 Caferiye Sk., İstanbul 34122, TR
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