Founded in March 1919, the American Legion was established as a World War I veterans' organization. Abilene Post No. 57 was organized on July Fourth and chartered in September of that year, one of one hundred such chapters formed in the Legion's first six months. Soon after its inception the post was renamed for James Harrison Parramore (1840-1917), one of Abilene's founders and a Civil War veterans who had been a supporter of the local National Guard.
The post's first structure was built of natural stone in 1920. The Ladies' Auxiliary was formed in 1922 and chartered in 1925. Legion facilities, expanded in 1937, housed the Ladies' Auxiliary and included what was for many years the only public swimming pool in Abilene.
In 1942, World War II veterans were admitted; veterans of the wars in Korea, Vietnam, and the Persian Gulf later became members, as did veterans of other major military conflicts. The Legion building was virtually destroyed by fire in 1980, eliminating the post's records.
The purpose of the American Legion is "to protect the interests of United States war veterans and their families." The Legion has assisted veterans with employment, financial aid, medical care, and government benefits. The members celebrate Memorial Day and Veterans Day with parades and programs. The Parramore Post also takes an active role in civic service, working with Abilene's youth and underprivileged citizens. Parramore Post No. 57 continues to uphold the traditions of its founders and remains an integral part of the Abilene community.