In rich Brazos River basin; had settlers early as 1825. Site in 1830 of Tenoxtitlan, one of 3 forts built by Mexico in Texas, situated above El Camino Real (The King's Highway) crossing on Brazos River. North of the road was Sterling Robertson's Colony; south, the colony of Stephen F. Austin.
In 1840 on the Old Road, Civil Engineer George B. Erath (1813-1891) platted town of Caldwell, named for noted Indian fighter Mathew ("Old Paint") Caldwell. In 1846, Erath introduced in First Legislature of State of Texas a bill creating Burleson County out of land then in Milam and Washington counties. It was named for Gen. Edward Burleson (1793-1851), under whom many local men had fought in the Texas War for Independence and in Indian Wars. Gen. Burleson was a congressman, senator and vice president of the Republic of Texas; also was in first State Senate.
Plantation system prevailed until Civil War (1861-1865). Burleson lost some area when Lee County was created in 1874. In 1880 the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Railway built into county; soon afterward, Houston & Texas Central added more rail mileage.
This is fourth courthouse for county. Economy is based on farming, oil, and miscellaneous products.