Appomattox County was named for the Appomattox River, which runs through the county. The river is named for the Appamattuck tribe, which lived near the mouth of the river. The county was formed from parts of Buckingham, Prince Edward, Charlotte, and Campbell Counties in 1845; an additional parcel of Campbell was added in 1848. The county seat is Appomattox. On Sunday, 9 April 1865, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee met with Union Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House and surrendered his army, ending the Civil War in Virginia.
Campbell County was created from Bedford County by the Virginia General Assembly in 1781 and named for Gen. William Campbell, one of the heroes of the Battle of King's Mountain in 1780. The county seat is Rustburg. British Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton's troops passed through the area in July 1781 to burn supplies in Bedford County. During the Civil War, Confederate forces under Maj. Gen. Jubal A. Early defeated Union forces under Maj. Gen. David Hunter at the Battle of Lynchburg, fought partly in Campbell County, 16-18 June 1864.