Plains Village Native Americans occupied a series ofinterconnected rock dwellings near here from about1200-1500. Called "Texas' first apartment house," theruins have been the focus of numerous excavationsthrough the years. Made of native dolomite, the rockand slab dwellings averaged about 12 feet by 15 feetin size with a single opening, a long crawlway, onthe east side. Other rooms contained a central hearthunder four roof-support posts, while smaller roomswere thought to be for storage. Adobe platforms mayhave been an altar for ceremonial purposes.
The ruins are located near a branch of the CanadianRiver, providing a perennial source of water. The creekbottom soil of sandy loam allowed residents to harvest crops including corn, beans, squash and pumpkin. The semi-sedentary natives also hunted bison, antelope,deer, and small animals as evidenced by the bones andtools found at the site. Artifacts recovered includesmall arrow points, beveled and oval knives, bone implements, grinding stones, and cord marked ceramics.
Considerable information on the artifact assemblageand village structure was gained from the WorksProgress Administration excavations from 1938-41, andsubsequent interpretive works in 1946.
National Register of Historic Places - 1972