On August 3, 1850, Elder G.G. Baggerly, pastor at the First Baptist Church of Austin, organized the Missionary Baptist Church of Bastrop with eleven members. On September 5, 1850, the new church sent its first messengers to the Colorado Baptist Association's fourth annual session in Seguin. Membership grew to 34 by 1853, and the church, in cooperation with two other organizations, shared a two-story frame structure at the corner of Pecan and Chestnut streets. The congregation met only once a month, and membership suffered during the difficult years of the Civil War and Reconstruction. The building was destroyed by fire in 1863.
By the 1880s, the Baptist church was enjoying a resurgence in membership and built a new structure on Pecan Street near the site of the 1853 building. The congregation continued to prosper in the following decades, and in 1909 was renamed First Baptist Church of Bastrop. Twenty years later, a lot on the corner of Water and Farm streets was donated to the congregation for a new building, which was completed during the years of the Great Depression. Continued growth resulted in acquisition of additional property and construction of larger facilities. By the end of the 20th century, it had become the largest Baptist congregation in Bastrop County.
From its beginning, the First Baptist Church of Bastrop was organized to support local, state and foreign missionary endeavors. It continues to play a vital part in mission work and to serve the community in a variety of ministries.