Passamaquoddy Tribe / La Tribu Passamaquoddy

Passamaquoddy Tribe / La Tribu Passamaquoddy (HM177Z)

Location: Welshpool, NB E5E 1B3 Charlotte County
Country: Canada
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N 44° 52.575', W 66° 58.315'

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Inscription
Passamaquoddy Bay takes its name from the Native American Passamaquoddy Tribe. The word means People of the Pollock-Spearing Place. The Passamaquoddy have a rich heritage, once occupying much of what is now eastern Maine and western New Brunswick. They lived inland, seasonally, where during the colder months they subsisted mainly by hunting and fishing. During the warmer months, they moved to the shore (where there were cooler temperatures and fewer biting flies) to harvest abundant marine resources such as fish, shellfish, and marine mammals.

Despite diseases, warfare, and other changes that accompanied first contact with Europeans and later settlers, the Passamaquoddy endure. Today, they have two reservations in eastern Maine, Sipayik at Pleasant Point near Eastport, and Motahkokmikuk, approximately 81 kilometres (50 miles) inland at Indian Township near Princeton. The tribe also manages natural resources on approximately 80,972 hectares (200,000 acres) of tribal lands. Sipayik and Motahkokmikuk are each self-governing, and each has its own Tribal Government made up of a Tribal Council, a Governor, and a Lieutenant Governor. A Joint Tribal Council addresses issues of concern to all Passamaquoddy.

During Campobello's resort era, Campobello Company brochures spoke of canoe trips with Passamaquoddy guides (photo 1) who would pick clients up at Friar's Bay beach. In an August 7, 1916 letter, Eleanor Roosevelt wrote, "This morning was lovely and the first thing I saw from the window on the Pell Beach was a canoe and two Indians! We all bustled round and by 10:30 we were ready to start...The wind came up quite strong and going across the Duck Ponds and around Liberty Point we had quite a little sea but it was a glorious day and we reached Mill Cove by lunch time."

The Passamaquoddy also sold baskets and birchbark items to hotel guests and summer colonists. Each summer, noted Passamaquoddy artist and Tribal Chief Tomah Joseph (photo 2) came to Campobello where he guided and sold birchbark canoes and other artwork to summer visitors. The canoe in the Park's Visitor Centre (and in photo 3) was built for FDR by Tomah Joseph.

FDR was concerned for the well-being and rights of Native Americans. His New Deal Indian Reorganization Act (1934) was passed to restore self-management of Native American assets and to prevent further depletion of reservation resources. Other goals of the Act were to provide a sound economic foundation for the people of the reservations and to return to them local, tribal self-government. Although scholars debate whether the Act achieved its goals, its reversal of long-standing policies of forced assimilation marks it as one of the most important pieces of legislation affecting Native Americans.
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La baie Passamaquoddy doit son nom ? la tribu am?rindienne des Passamaquoddy. Son nom signifie "peuple qui p?che le poisson par l'entremise d'une lance". Les Passamaquoddy poss?dent un riche patrimoine. La tribu occupaient autrefois une bonne partie de ce qui est aujourd'hui l'est de l'?tat du Maine et l'ouest de Nouveau-Brunswick. Durant les mois d'hiver, les membres de la tribu subsistaient principalement de la chasse et de la p?che. Lors des saisons plus cl?mentes, les membres de la tribu vivaient ? l'int?rieur des terres, pr des rives pour profiter des temp?ratures plus fra?ches, ?viter les moustiques et r?colter les produits de la mer, tels que les poissons, les crustac et les mammif?res marins.

De d?pit de la maladie, des guerres et autres changements suivant les premiers contacts avec les Europ?ens (et plus tard les premiers colons), les membres de la tribu des Passamaquoddy continuent d'occuper deux rerves dans l'est du Maine - Sipayik, situ?e ? la pointe Pleasant pr de Eastport, et Motahkokmikuk, situ?e ? environ 81 km. (50 mi.) ? l'int?rieur des terres du Indian Township pr de Princeton. La tribu fait l'exploitation de ressources naturelles sur un territoire d'environ 80,972 hectares (200,000 aces). Les rerves de Sipayik et Motahkokmikuk poss?dent toutes les deux leur propre gouvernement autonome, conseil, gouverneur et lieutenant gouverneur. Un conseil conjoint s'occupe aussi des questions concernant l'ensemble des membres de la tribu des Passamaquoddy.

? l'?poque o? l'affluence des visiteurs ? Campobello battait son plein, les brochures publicitaires de la Campobello Company vantaient les plaisirs des voyages en canot guid par les Passamaquoddy (photo 1). Ces derniers venaient chercher les clients sur la plage de la baie Friar. Dans une lettre r?dig?e le 7 ao?t 1916, Eleanor Roosevelt ?crit la note suivante: "Cette matin?e est superbe et la premi?re chose que j'ai remarqu? en regardant par le fen?tre qui m?ne sur la plage Pell fut un canot et deux indiens! On s'est tous affair et vers 10h30 nous ?tions pr?ts ? partir...le vent s'?leva fortement et souffla ? travers les Duck Ponds et autour de la pointe Liberty. Bien que la mer ?tait assez mouvement?e, nous avons n?anmoins pass? une journ?e glorieuse et nous sommes arriv ? Mill Cove avant le d?jeuner."

Les Passamaquoddy vendaient aussi des paniers et autres articles faits d'?corce de bouleau aux habitants et visiteurs s?journant dans les h?tels. Chaque ?t?, l'illustre artiste et chef de la tribu des Passamaquoddy, Tomah Joseph (photo 2) venait ? Campobello o? il servait de guide et vendait ses canots en bouleau et autres objets d'art aux visiteurs de l'?le. Le canot ? proximit? du Centre d'accueil des visiteurs (et sur la photo 3) a ?t? fabriqu? pour FDR par Tomah Joseph.

FDR se pr?occupait ?norm?ment du bien-?tre et des droits des am?rindiens. Une composante importante de son "New Deal" fut la Loi sur la r?organisation des affairs indiennes (1934) qui fut adopt?e en vue de r?tablir la gestion autonome des biens am?rindiens et d'emp?cher la d?cimation des ressources sur la rerve. Un autre objectif de la nouvelle loi ?tait d'offrir les outils n?cessaires ? la cr?ation d'une fondation ?conomique solide pour les peuples am?rindiens. Bien que les sp?cialistes continuent de d?battre des bienfaits de la loi, personne ne conteste son apport ? la remise en question des anciennes politiques pr?-New Deal for?ant l'int?gration am?rindiens.
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Photo 1.
Franklin and Eleanor are in the canoe on the right.
? droite, Franklin et Eleanor dans un canot.

Photo 2.
Pictured here is noted Passamaquoddy artist and Tribal Governor Tomah Joseph in one of his birchbark canoes. Friar's Head is in the background.
Sue cette photo, on voit l'illustre artiste et chef de la tribu Tomah Joseph ? bord d'un de ses canots en bouleau. ? l'arri?re plan, on aper?oit le cap Friar.

Photo 3.
In this 1907 photo, FDR is shown launching his Tomah Joseph-built canoe from the beach below his summer home.
Sue cette photo prise en 1907, on aper?oit FDR lors du lancement de son canot construit par Tomah Joseph sur la plage au bas de sa ridence d'?t?.

Photo 4.
FDR continued his association with the Passamaquoddy. This photo shows FDR and Tribal Chief William Neptune speaking in front of the Roosevelt Cottage, circa 1920.
Cette photo de FDR t?moigne de ses relations ?troites avec la tribu des Passamaquoddy. Sur cette photo, on aper?oit FDR et le chef du tribu William Neptune en dialogue devant la ridence d'?t? de Roosevelt vers 1920.
Details
HM NumberHM177Z
Tags
Placed ByRoosevelt Campobello International Park
Marker ConditionNo reports yet
Date Added Friday, September 19th, 2014 at 4:57am PDT -07:00
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Locationbig map
UTM (WGS84 Datum)19T E 660187 N 4971204
Decimal Degrees44.87625000, -66.97191667
Degrees and Decimal MinutesN 44° 52.575', W 66° 58.315'
Degrees, Minutes and Seconds44° 52' 34.50" N, 66° 58' 18.90" W
Driving DirectionsGoogle Maps
Area Code(s)803
Closest Postal AddressAt or near 255-355 Unnamed Road, Welshpool NB E5E 1B3, CA
Alternative Maps Google Maps, MapQuest, Bing Maps, Yahoo Maps, MSR Maps, OpenCycleMap, MyTopo Maps, OpenStreetMap

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