In 1864, Spring Hill was a small, prosperous farming community. Although the town had been occupied by both Confederate and Federal forces at various times, it had not been seriously impacted by the war. All that changed as Hood's and Schofield's armies clashed south of town. Hundreds of wagons and artillery pieces passed through the town, earthworks were erected around the town by Union defenders, and both armies marched past on their way to Franklin. During the evening of November 29, Schofield made the McKissack House his field headquarters.
The next day, hundreds of southern and northern wounded were left behind by the armies to be cared for by the community. On the night of December 17, 1864, Hood's Army was again camped overnight south of Spring Hill, following their retreat from the Battle of Nashville. A brief cavalry skirmish would be fought north of town, and then the Union army would pass through in pursuit. For the rest of the war, Federal units would garrison the town.