The smallest regulation gun of the Civil War was the six-pounder. Such guns, firing projectiles only 3.67 inches in diameter, often lacked sufficient power and range; however, both Union and Confederate forces continued to use these guns throughout the war.
This twelve-pounder gun was developed in France after tests initiated by Louis Napoleon in 1850. The Napoleon was deadly in the American Civil War in the relatively wooded country. Field engagements beyond the weapon's 1,680-yard range were few.
1 sponges, 2 takes round from 5, puts it in gun. 1 rams round home, while 3 holds thumb on vent. G sights gun. When round is in, 3 goes to trail, moves it as G orders "Trail right" of Trail left." 5 gets another round from 6 or 7 at limber where 6 cuts fuses. G steps clear to side where he can best observe effect of fire.
1 and 2 step clear. 3 pricks cartridge. 4 hooks lanyard to primer, puts primer in vent. 3 covers vent with left hand, 4 moves to rear, keeping lanyard just slack,
G Gives command...
3 steps clear of wheel. 4 pulls lanyard. Gorders gun run up. Sequence continues with "Load."
[Caption from photograph]:
Murfreesboro, TN - 1863. Illinois Light Artillery, serving in General Rosecrans' army, turns out in full regalia with all its gear and horses. The battery was equipped with a variety of weapons: two 12-pound Napoleons (left); two 3-inch ordinance rifles (middle) and a pair of 6-pounder guns.