Campaign in the Snow

Campaign in the Snow (HM13SN)

Location: Berkeley Springs, WV 25411 Morgan County
Country: United States of America

N 39° 37.596', W 78° 13.638'

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Jackson Captures Bath and Romney

— Jackson's Bath-Romney Campaign —

The summer of 1861 had been disastrous for Confederate arms in western Virginia (present day West Virginia) and by the New Year the Virginia counties west of the Alleghenies were on the road to statehood. On January 1, 1862, Confederate Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, with 8,500 men and 26 cannons, began a winter campaign to disrupt Federal control. By seizing the county seats of Bath (present-day Berkeley Springs) and Romney, he could threaten Cumberland, Maryland, and advance toward Parkersburg along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.

Jackson's forces suffered terribly from freezing rain and snow, and an estimated 2,000 soldiers fell, not to bullets, but to sickness and disease. Jackson seized Bath after three running battles and shelling Hancock, Maryland, across the Potomac River. Advancing on Romney, Jackson's men suffered the worst day of the campaign on January 7, hauling guns and wagons up icy roads and suffering broken arms and legs.

The Federal garrison evacuated Romney on January 10, as the frozen, weary Confederates approached. They entered unopposed on January 14. While the campaign had been a success, illness rendered many men unfit for further service. Squabbles between Jackson and his subordinates—Gens. William W. Loring and Richard B. Garnett—-divided and demoralized the command. Abandoning plans to attack Cumberland and move farther west, on January 23, Jackson marched the Stonewall Brigade back to Winchester. Confederate authorities then ordered him to evacuate Loring's brigades from Romney, rendering a month of privation and hard-won gains for naught.

"I don't think I was ever more disgusted with the war than then. During this trip my patriotism has at times been put to very severe tests & I am sorry to say has sometimes been at very low ebb." - Confederate Pvt. Randolph Fairfax, Rockbridge Light Artillery
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Details
HM NumberHM13SN
Series This marker is part of the West Virginia Civil War Trails series
Tags
Placed ByWest Virginia Civil War Trails
Marker ConditionNo reports yet
Date Added Saturday, October 4th, 2014 at 9:00am PDT -07:00
Locationbig map
UTM (WGS84 Datum)17S E 737978 N 4389988
Decimal Degrees39.62660000, -78.22730000
Degrees and Decimal MinutesN 39° 37.596', W 78° 13.638'
Degrees, Minutes and Seconds39° 37' 35.76" N, 78° 13' 38.28" W
Driving DirectionsGoogle Maps
Area Code(s)304
Closest Postal AddressAt or near 250-298 County Rte 9/9, Berkeley Springs WV 25411, US
Alternative Maps Google Maps, MapQuest, Bing Maps, Yahoo Maps, MSR Maps, OpenCycleMap, MyTopo Maps, OpenStreetMap

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