In late November 1861, Confederate forces at Camp Bartow moved southeast to this strong position on Allegheny Mountain overlooking the Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike. Colonel Edward Johnson, 12th Georgia Infantry, took command of the garrison with orders to guard this mountain pass for the winter.
Battle of Allegheny Mountain
At daybreak on December 13, 1861, forces under Union General Robert H. Milroy attacked the Confederate flank of Colonel Johnson along the ridge to your right. A simultaneous attack on the left flank failed to materialize when Colonel Gideon Moody's Union force arrived late. This delay enabled Johnson to fight off both advances in turn. Milroy and Moody retired from the battle, having lost an opportunity to open the turnpike to the Shenandoah Valley.
"I saw [Col. Johnson] at one point, where his men were hard pressed, snatch a musket in one hand and, swinging a big club in the other, he led his line right up among the enemy, driving them headlong down the mountain..."
-John Robson, 52nd Virginia Infantry
Colonel Johnson earned a general's star and the nickname "Allegheny" for his actions in the battle.
The Harsh Landscape of Winter"We are still living in our tents, but we make them tolerably comfortable by constructing rude fireplaces to them. At night we do not fare so well."
-James E. Hall, 31st Virginia Infantry
At 4,400 feet, the wind-swept summit of Allegheny Mountain is the highest elevation of any Civil War fortification in the east. Throughout the winter of 1861-62, more soldiers died from exposure and disease than were killed during the battle.
Artifacts, structures and archaeological resources at Camp Allegheny are protected by federal laws such as the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979, as amended.
Please stay within the publicly owned portion of the site. Entry into private lands will require landowner consent. As you visit and enjoy Camp Allegheny, please be certain to leave it as you found it. If you observe artifacts, please leave them in place and report them to U.S. Forest Service personnel. Should you observe anyone digging, using a metal detector or collecting at this location, please inform the Forest Supervisor at (304) 636-1800 or the District Ranger at (304) 456-3335.