A Fight for the Continent
Waterways to the Interior
Rivers and lakes served as the superhighways of the 18th century. Many rivers and lakes in the Colony of New York either bordered New France (Canada), or connected the bordering water bodies to the interior of the Colonies and the continent. All parties involved in the war exploited these routes to attack their respective enemies.
The French"...defending their frontiers."
· Control the Fur Trade
The French were not interested in colonizing the land, but wanted to control the fur trade with the American Indians.
· Build Alliances
The French sent out missionaries to attempt to build alliances and to convert the American Indians to their religious beliefs
· Link Territories
The French wanted to link New France (Canada) with the Louisiana Territory, which was also under French control.
The British"...protecting the colonies from Indian invasions."
· Expand Empire
British colonists wanted to expand westward from the original coastal population centers. This expansion intruded on lands occupied and controlled by both the French and the American Indians.
· Increase Access and Defense
The British wanted more access to natural resources and increased fur trading opportunities with the American Indians. They also wanted to secure the frontiers and provide a defensive line of fortifications to protect their outlying cities and towns.
· Build Alliances
The British also sent out missionaries to attempt to build alliances and to convert the American Indians to their religious beliefs.
American Indian Allies"...holding onto Tribal Lands."
American Indian Goals
· Stop the Expansion
The American Indians wanted to stop the British advance upon their traditionally held lands
· Maintain Trade
American Indians wanted to maintain trade with the Europeans for access to firearms, ammunition, cooking utensils, and textiles that made their lives much easier than in the past.
· Form Alliances
The allegiance of the American Indians to one side or the other, or their neutrality, was all dependent upon what they felt was the most opportune position to be in at a given time.
Fort By Fort
· The Treaty of Paris is signed, officially ending hostilities between the French and British and determining the fate of North America.1760
· French fail in attempt to recapture Quebec.
· Amherst captures French Fort Levis and forces the surrender of Montreal, ending the conflict in North America.1759
· Sir William Johnson captures French Fort Niagara.
· Haldimand (Br.) rebuilds Fort Ontario
· French abandon Forts Presque Isle and le Boeuf.
· Amherst captures French Forts Carillon and St. Frederic and begins building Fort Crown Point.
· Wolfe (Br.) captures Quebec.1758
· Bradstreet (Br.) destroys French Fort Frontenac.
· Amherst captures French Fortress Louisbourg.
· Forbes (Br.) captures French Fort Duquesne and begins building Fort Pitt.
· Abercromby (Br.) is defeated at French Fort Carillon.1757
· French and Indians attack German Flats.
· Montcalm (Fr.) destroys Fort William Henry.1756
· De Lery (Fr.) destroys British Fort Bull
· Montcalm (Fr.) destroys the three British forts at Oswego.1755
· William Johnson (Br.) defeats the French at Lake George, and begins building Fort William Henry.
· Braddock (Br.) is defeated near Fort Duquesne.1754
· French build Fort Duquesne.
· George Washington (Br.) builds and then surrenders Fort Necessity.1753
· French build Forts Presque Isle and Le Boeuf.
· George Washington demands the French evacuate the Ohio Valley.1749
· Abbe Francois Picquet (Fr.) establishes mission fort at Fort de la Presentation.
· French explorer Celoron claims the Ohio River for France.