Sylvania was established as the county seat of Screven County by an Act of the General Assembly, December 24, 1847. Moses N. McCall, Willis Young, John A. Cross, John R. Kittles, Solomon Zeagler, William Lovett and John Roberts were named Commissioners to locate the new county seat in the center of the county and to remove the court house and jail from Jacksonboro, where the county seat had been since 1797.
The Commissioners, on January 3, 1848 purchased 50 acres of land from Charles Church which was divided into streets and lots by Azzariah Eneis, Surveyor. The Commissioners contracted with Curtis Hunphries to build the new courthouse and with James P. Bazemore to build the new jail at a cost of $1575.00 and $400.00 respectively. The buildings were completed and delivered to the county April 3, 1848.
The first Post Office was established August 10, 1848 and Edward B. Gross was appointed first Postmaster. The Town of Sylvania was incorporated, February 20, 1854, and the first Town Commissioners were: Domonick J. Dillon, Winsley Hobby, Daniel Roberts, William Williams, and Charles Church.