In 1969, Winston-Salem became the first Southern city with a chapter of the Black Panther Party. Nationally and locally, the Black Panthers sought to protect African—American neighborhoods from police brutality; the volatility of the times often led to confrontation with police. Later the Chapter offered community service programs, including free breakfasts for school children, sickle cell anemia testing, and the Joseph Waddell People's Free Ambulance Service, which received national acclaim. These programs brought meaningful change to Winston-Salem during a time of social and political upheaval and lent validation to the Chapter's slogan, "Power to the People—Right On!" Members of the Winston-Salem Chapter would later serve the community as ministers, teachers, politicians, and community organizers.